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Different Types of Knee Replacement Surgeries

Different Types of Knee Replacement Surgeries

Anatomy of Knee:

The knee is a unique and one of the strongest joints in the human body. It allows the lower leg to move relative to the thighs while supporting the body’s weight. There are two groups of muscles involved in the knee, including quadriceps muscles (located on the front of the thighs), which straighten the legs, and the hamstring muscles (located on the back of the thighs), which bend the leg at the knee. The knee consists of the following:

1.Cartilage – It is a tissue that covers the surface of a bone at a joint. It helps in frictionless movement within a joint.

2.Ligament -It is a fibrous connective tissue that connects bones to other bones. It surrounds the joint to give support and limits the joint’s movement. It maintains the position of organs.

1.Femur (Thigh Bone)- Longest and the strongest bone in the body

2.Tibia (Leg Bone) - Two long bones located in the lower leg

3.Patella (Kneecap) – A small triangular bone that provides leverage for muscles to bend and straighten the legs

6.Synovial membrane – It lines the joint and seals it into a joint capsule. The synovial membrane secretes a clear and sticky fluid, called synovial fluid around the joint to lubricate it.

7.Tendon – It is a fibrous connective tissue that connects muscles to bones.

8.Meniscus– A curved thin cartilage between the surfaces of knees and other joints that acts as a shock absorber.

People of all ages are affected by my knee pain. It may be the result of two common reasons- 1.Injury and 2.Medical condition. Medical conditions include arthritis, gout, and infections. Physical therapy and knee braces and oral medication can help relieve minor knee pain, but in some cases, your knee may require surgical repair or complete knee replacement.

Types of Knee Surgery:

Knee replacement surgery, called ‘Knee Arthroplasty’ involves the replacement of part or all of the knee joints with artificial(prosthetic) parts through surgery, depending on the level of damage in your knee. Knee surgery today is done easily and we have been performing the surgery in Dwarka regularly through a minimally invasive technique, which helps decrease post-operation pain and time for recovery. The main kinds of knee replacement surgery are:-

1. Total Knee Replacement (TKR)- 

  • Conventional Technique: - Conventional also known as the Traditional approach of knee replacement surgery is a method that has been in existence for many decades. Here the health practitioner operates the knee by making an incision of 8 to twelve inches using the standard tools and system. Many humans have benefited from this surgical operation and can live a life without such troubles. Traditional surgery began a revolution within the healthcare sector and was very well appreciated by society. But with research and improvement in this region, new forms of surgical treatment have arisen to benefit the patients more easily and effectively. Such surgeries are one step ahead of the conventional technique of knee replacement surgical procedure.
  • Robotic Technique: - Robotic Knee Replacement Surgery is an evolution and a boon for those who are suffering from knee issues. It has brought innovation and inspired the growth of Orthopaedics area. The surgeons can effectively function with the least chance of mistakes. In this method, by analysing CT scans, the robotic arm can create and map 3D images of the surgical area which is used by the surgeon to determine the size and position of the implant. The results of this surgical treatment are more correct and reliable as it is possible to target only the damaged bone. Benefits of this type of surgery involve more patient satisfaction, costs less in the long-term cost and better outcomes for patients.

2. Partial Knee Replacement:

When an injury or arthritis occurs in only a part or section of your knee, partial knee replacement is recommended. A partial knee replacement is done as a short stage procedure, which means you can be in and out of the hospital in two days!

The procedure is done under regional anaesthesia after which the damaged bone and cartilage will be removed from the knee, leaving behind healthy tissue.

A very small incision is made to perform a partial knee replacement surgery, so naturally, the tissues will heal quicker than total knee replacement surgery. Most patients can put weight on their knee quite soon after surgery, but using a walker, cane, or crutches is needed to get used to your new knee.

It takes few weeks to recover but those who have a partial knee replacement recover faster and better, lose less blood during the surgery and experience lesser pain than patients who have a total knee replacement.

3. Robotic Partial Knee Replacement:

Robotic partial knee replacement is a similar procedure to conventional partial knee replacement but a special Robotic device called NAVIOplasty (NAVIO Robot) is used by the surgeons to make the surgery more precise and accurate.

Proper planning pre-surgery will ensure the perfect size and placement of the implant and with the help of computer guidance, the surgeon will use a robotic arm to control certain aspects of the surgery for maximum precision and success.

Post-surgery recovery is faster compared to standard procedures, due to it being individually made for every patient, meaning it is more accurate and precise. It also reduces the risk of trauma, as the robotic assistance allows increased maneuverability in tight spaces. If you are planning for robotic knee replacement in Delhi, look no further than Aakash Healthcare, Dwarka.

4. Osteotomy Knee Surgery: 

In this procedure, one of the bones (tibia or femur) is reshaped to relieve the pressure being put in the knee joint, and this is used primarily for patients suffering from early-stage arthritis that has damaged only part of the knee joint. Osteotomy knee surgery helps relieve pain and improves the movement of the knee faster. Patients can go home within two days after the surgery. Crutches may be required for a while.

5. Revision Knee Surgery:

If someone already has a prosthetic knee from previous knee replacement surgery but is experiencing pain or disability again, they may need to go in for a revision knee surgery to get new replacement prosthetic materials. Implants are always designed to last for a long time, but they can wear out and may need replacement. If you are suffering from knee problems and want to know whether knee replacement surgery is right for you, do contact us on +91 8800015905. Our team of highly experienced surgeons has treated all types of orthopaedic conditions, including debilitating knee pain, and we can help diagnose your condition and give you advice on the best type of treatment and the results you can expect.

Dr. Aashish Chaudhry
Senior Consultant & HOD
Orthopaedics & Joint Replacement 





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