Prostate Cancer treatment: Risk Factors and Prevention – Aakash Healthcare

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Prostate Cancer - Types, causes, risk factors, symptoms and treatment

Cancer originates when cells in the body replicate uncontrollably. Prostate cancer occurs when cells in the prostate gland commence growing out of control.

Prostate Cancer - Types, causes, risk factors, symptoms and treatment

Cancer originates when cells in the body replicate uncontrollably. Prostate cancer occurs when cells in the prostate gland commence growing out of control. The prostate gland makes some of the fluid that is part of semen and is found only in males.

Types of prostate cancer

Almost all prostate cancers are adenocarcinomas. Other types of cancer, that are rare, can start in the prostate include:

  • Small cell carcinomas
  • Neuroendocrine tumours
  • Transitional cell carcinomas
  • Sarcomas

Symptoms of Prostate Cancer

In the initial stage, prostate cancer does not exhibit any symptoms. But when they do occur, it is like those of an enlarged prostate or BPH.

Symptoms of prostate cancer can be:

  • Pain in the lower pelvic area
  • Frequent urinating
  • Trouble while urinating, pain, burning, or weak urine flow
  • Blood in the urine
  • Painful ejaculation
  • Lower back, hips or upper thighs pains
  • Loss of appetite
  • Loss of weight
  • Bone pain

Causes of Prostate Cancer

The causes of Prostate cancer are still unknown, but autopsy studies show 1 in 3 men over the age of 50 has some cancer cells in the prostate. Eight out of ten autopsy cancers found are small, with tumours that are not harmful.

Risk Factors for Prostate Cancer

Moreover, there are no known reasons for prostate cancer, some risks associated with the disease are:<

  1. Age : One of the well-known risk factors for prostate cancer is age.
  2. Ethnicity : Prostate Cancer is more common in some ethnicities as compared to others which may be due to socioeconomic, environmental, diet or other factors.
  3. Family History: Family history plays a vital role in developing higher risks of prostate cancer.
  4. Smoking : The risk double-up for heavy smokers. It is also linked to a higher risk of dying from prostate cancer.
  5. World Area: Prostate cancer numbers and deaths are higher in first world countries but vary around the world.
  6. Diet : The risk of prostate cancer can be affected due to diet and lifestyle choices. The risk increases with the intake of calories, animal fats, refined sugar and not sufficient fruits and vegetables.
  7. Obesity : A deficiency of exercise is also linked to poor consequences. Obesity is known to boost a man's risk of dying from prostate cancer.

Prostate Cancer Prevention

You can prevent prostate cancer by engaging in healthy activities. Make sure of eating right, exercising well, watching that weight and not smoking, this can be good for your health and can assist you to avoid prostate cancer.

Some prostate cancer doctors believe drugs like finasteride and dutasteride can prevent prostate cancer. While others believe they only slow the development of prostate cancer.

Prostate Cancer Diagnosis

Screening is the term given to the process of diagnosis for prostate cancer. It involves testing for a disease even if you have no symptoms. The prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test and digital rectal examination (DRE) are two tests that can be used to screen for prostate cancer.

Prostate Cancer Stages

There are ways to verify the stages of Prostate Cancer. The progress of cancer and whether it has spread or not can be defined by Grading and staging:<

  1. Grading: The pathologist grades the prostate cancer cells when they are found in tissue from the core biopsies. The grade is a measure of how promptly the cells are expected to develop and expand.
  2. Staging : This describes where the cancer is within the prostate, how widespread it is, and if it has expanded to other parts of the body. Staging the cancer is performed by DRE and special imaging studies.

Prostate Cancer Survival Rate

Studies show that men with prostate cancer have a great survival rate; they will not die from it but may die from other causes. And thanks to better screening and treatment options, the survival rates for men with prostate cancer have increased over the years in countries undertaking screening program.

Prostate Cancer Treatment

In some cases, treatment may not be needed at all as cancer grows so slowly. Whereas others grow faster and are life-threatening, hence treatment is usually necessary. Selecting what treatment to get can be complex. The treatment plan will depend on:

  • * The stage and grade of cancer
  • * The risk category
  • * The age and health factors
  • * Preferences concerning side effects, long-term effects and treatment goals

Some of the treatment choices for prostate cancer include:

  1. * Surveillance: Active Surveillance and Watchful Waiting
  2. * Localised Therapy: Surgery, Radiation Therapy, Cryotherapy and Focal Therapy
  3. * Systemic Therapy: Hormonal Therapy, Chemotherapy and Immunotherapy

Effect on sexual life post prostate cancer surgery

After prostate surgery, a percentage of men have some form of erectile dysfunction. Erectile dysfunction is defined as the inability of a man to have an erection long enough for satisfying sexual activity. In this case, the nerves associated with the erection process envelope the prostate gland, and they may get affected by the surgery.

It is suggested to consult an oncosurgeon to know more about prostate cancer symptoms, causes, signs, stages, diagnosis, types, surgery, prevention, survival rate, cost etc.

Prostate cancer treatments are attaining heights and every day there are new possibilities coming up. It is not only about the treatment but it is about comprehensive care, which requires dedication, commitment, expertise, advanced infrastructure, state of the art equipment and highly skilled doctors. The oncology team at Aakash Healthcare Super Specialty Hospital brings together the brightest minds in Surgical, Medical and Palliative Oncology and provides tailor-made care to individual patients. The team certainly can be called as the best oncology team in Delhi-NCR with the finest oncologist in the team.




Dr. Arun Kumar Giri
Director - Surgical Oncology

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