Arthritis – Symptoms, Types, Risk Factors, Diagnosis & Treatment
Arthritis is inflammation of one or more of joints. The main symptoms of arthritis are joint pain and stiffness, which typically worsen with age. The most widely recognized types of arthritis are Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid arthritis.
Osteo arthritis causes cartilage to break down. Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disorder that first targets the lining of joints.
Uric acid crystals, infections or underlying disease, such as psoriasis or lupus, can cause other types of arthritis.
Treatments vary depending on the type of arthritis. The main goals of arthritis treatments are to reduce symptoms and improve quality of life.
What are the symptoms of Arthritis?
Depending on the type of arthritis you have, your signs and symptoms may include:
What are the types of Arthritis?
The two main types of arthritis — osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis
Osteoarthritis is the most common type of arthritis that involves wear-and-tear of your joint's cartilage. Enough harm can bring about bone crushing straightforwardly on bone, which causes torment and confined development. This wear and tear can occur over many years, or it can be hastened by a joint injury or infection.
In rheumatoid arthritis, the body's immune system attacks the lining of the joint capsule. This lining, known as the synovial membrane, becomes inflamed and swollen. The disease process can eventually destroy cartilage and bone within the joint.
Risk factors for arthritis include:
Diagnosis of Arthritis
Amid the physical exam, your specialist will check your joints for swelling, redness and warmth. He or she will likewise need to perceive how well you can move your joints. Depending on the type of arthritis suspected, your doctor may suggest some of the following tests.
- • Laboratory tests: The examination of various sorts of body liquids can pinpoint the kind of arthritis you may have. Fluids commonly analyzed include blood, urine and joint fluid.
- • Imaging: These types of tests can detect problems within your joint that may be causing your symptoms. Examples include:
Arthritis treatment depends on the stage, severity & types of arthritis. One may need to attempt a few distinct medicines, or blends of medications, before you determine what works best for you. Options include:
- • Pain
- • Stiffness
- • Swelling
- • Redness
- • Decreased range of motion
- • Family history: Some types of arthritis run in families, so you may be more likely to develop arthritis if your parents or siblings have the disorder
- • Age: Risk increases with age.
- • Your sex: Women are more likely to develop rheumatoid arthritis
- • Previous joint injury: People who have an injured joint, are more likely to eventually develop arthritis in that joint.
- • Obesity: Obese people have a higher risk of developing arthritis.
- Computerized tomography (CT)
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
- • Medications
- • Therapy: Physical therapy can be helpful for some types of arthritis. Activities can enhance scope of movement and fortify the muscles encompassing joints. In some cases, splints or braces may be warranted.
- • Surgery: If conventional/ conservative measures don't help, your specialist may propose surgery, for example:
- Joint repair: In some instances, joint surfaces can be smoothed or realigned to reduce pain and improve function. These types of procedures can often be performed arthroscopically
- Joint replacement: This procedure removes your damaged joint and replaces it with an artificial one. Joints most commonly replaced are hips and knees.
- Joint fusion: This procedure is more often used for smaller joints, such as those in the wrist, ankle and fingers. It removes the ends of the two bones in the joint and then locks those ends together until they heal into one rigid unit.
Senior Consultant & HOD
Orthopaedics, Joint Replacement & Spine Surgery