Everybody feels depressed or sad often. Depression is a constant sadness, emptiness, or a lack of joy that appears to be happening without an apparent reason.
Depression is the most common reason for disability in the world, according to the World Health Organization (WHO) It is a leading cause of suicide, erodes relationships between people, and can make maintaining and working health difficult, perhaps impossible.
The article below will teach you about depression, its cause, its treatment, and much more.

How can depression be defined?

The medical term depression refers to an issue affecting your mood and ability to function.
The symptoms of depression include feeling depressed and gloomy. It can also lead to difficulties in memory, thinking, eating, and sleeping.

A diagnosis of major depression (clinical depression) is when you've felt depressed, sad, or sluggish every day for at least 2 weeks and also have other signs, such as sleeping problems, a loss of interest in certain activities, or a change in appetite.
If not treated, depression may become more severe and persist for longer. In the worst cases, depression could lead to self-harm and even suicide. However, treatment options can be highly effective in treating the symptoms of depression.


While depression can occur once in your life, it is common for people to experience several episodes. In these episodes, the symptoms are present throughout the time, and almost all the time, and could include:

  • Outbursts of anger, irritation, or frustration, even on minor issues
  • Feelings of sadness, tears, and hopelessness
  • The loss of interest or enjoyment for the majority of activities, including sexual activity, hobbies, or sports
  • Weight loss and appetite reduction or increased desire for food and weight gain
  • Energy and fatigue, even the simplest tasks require more effort
  • Slower thinking, speaking, or movement of the body
  • Anxiety, agitation, or restlessness
  • Problems with thinking, concentration, making decisions, and recollecting things
  • Unforeseen physical ailments like headaches or back pain
  • Consistent or repeated suicidal thoughts

For many who suffer from depression, the symptoms are usually sufficient to create noticeable issues in everyday activities, such as school, work, and social interactions or relationships with other people. Certain people might feel unsatisfied or depressed without having a reason.

Depression symptoms in adolescents and children

The common symptoms and signs of depression in adolescents and children are the same as in adults, though there could be some variations.

  • In children younger than 10, signs of depression can include irritability, sadness, anxiety, clinginess, pain, refusing to attend school, or being overweight.
  • Teenagers can experience irritability, sadness, devalued and insignificant anger, ineffective performance, or low performance at school. They may also feel unloved and susceptible. They may also be using alcohol or recreational drugs, sleeping or overeating, self-harming or self-harming, lacking interest in everyday activities, and avoiding social interactions.


There are many possible causes of depression. There are a variety of possible causes. They range from biological to purely circumstantial.

Common causes are:

  • Hormone levels. The changes in estrogen and progesterone in different phases such as the menstrual cycle and the postpartum period, menopausal and menopausal changes can increase the chance of developing depression.
  • Brain chemical processes. There could be a chemical imbalance within areas of the brain that control mood, thoughts and sleep patterns, appetite, and behavior in those who suffer from depression.
  • Childhood trauma. Specific experiences affect how your body responds to stress and anxiety.
  • Family history. There is a greater risk of developing depression if have an ancestral experience of depression or another mood disorder.
  • Medical ailments. Certain conditions could increase your risk, including chronic illness, chronic pain, insomnia and stroke, Parkinson's disease, cancer, and heart attacks.
  • Brain structure. There's a higher chance of developing depression if the frontal part of your brain is not as active. But, researchers don't know if this occurs before or following the onset of depression symptoms.
  • Pain. People who experience prolonged physical or emotional discomfort are more likely to experience depression.
  • Use of substances. A history of substance or alcohol abuse can increase your risk.


Depression can be very serious; however, it is also easily treated. Treatment for depression includes:

Alternative medicine: People suffering from mild depression or persistent symptoms may improve their health by utilizing complementary therapies. Therapies can include acupuncture, massage, biofeedback, and hypnosis.

Psychotherapy: Counseling is a conversation with someone who is a mental health professional. Counselors help you deal with your issues and build strategies for coping. Sometimes, a brief session is all you require. Some people go on with therapy for longer.

Therapy for brain stimulation: This therapy is an excellent option for those suffering from severe depression or depression that is accompanied by psychosis. Different types of treatments for stimulation of the brain consist of electroconvulsive treatment (ECT) and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS), along with vagus neurostimulation (VNS).

Self-help: A regular exercise routine, enough rest, and spending quality time with those you love can help ease depression symptoms.

Medication: Prescription medication known as antidepressants may help to alter the brain's chemistry, which can cause depression. Antidepressants take up to a few weeks to show results. Certain antidepressants may cause adverse side effects that typically get better with time. Other medications could be more effective for you.

PsychotherapyPsychotherapy, also known as talk treatments for depression, includes CBT, interpersonal psychotherapy, and problem-solving treatments.

For some types that are depressed, psychotherapy can be the first-line treatment. However, certain people are more responsive to the encapsulation of psychotherapy with medication.

CBT and psychotherapy for interpersonal conflicts are two of the most famous psychotherapy for depression. People can engage in CBT in private sessions with a psychotherapist, in groups, via the phone, or online.

CBT is geared toward helping people recognize the link between their actions, thoughts, and emotions. Then they can alter negative behavior and thoughts.

The goal of interpersonal therapy is to help individuals to identify:

  • how to improve your relationships and manage your emotions
  • how these issues impact their mood
  • emotional issues that impact relationships and communications

Exercise- Aerobic exercise boosts endorphin levels and neurotransmitters, which could help alleviate anxiety and depression. Exercise is beneficial for those suffering from treatment-resistant depression.

The most significant benefit of exercise combines conventional treatments like psychotherapy and antidepressants.

Alternative treatmentsTalk to your doctor regarding alternative treatment options for depression. Many people opt to utilize alternative treatments alongside traditional psychotherapy and medications. Some examples include:

  • Acupuncture. Acupuncture is a type of traditional Chinese medicine that could assist in relieving some of the symptoms of depression. Acupuncture is a treatment method that utilizes needles to stimulate specific regions of the body to treat various diseases.
  • Meditation. Stress, anger, anxiety, and stress can trigger depression. However, meditation can change the way your brain reacts to these feelings. Research has shown that practicing meditation can improve depression symptoms and decrease the chance of depression rebound.


Depression is a severe, persistent medical problem that may influence the entirety of one's life. If it leads to suicidal thoughts, it could be fatal.

People are unable to find a way out of depression. Depression isn't a personal failure or indicator of weakness. It can be treated, and seeking treatment early can improve the odds of recovering.

Since depression is a complex condition to treat, people need to consult a physician with expertise in depression and be prepared to explore various treatment options. Most of the time, a combination of medication and therapy will yield the most effective results.

Also Read: Monkeypox Disease: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, and Prevention

with Dr. Parinita Kaur


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