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Laparoscopic & Minimal Access Surgery

Laparoscopic & Minimal Access Surgery

In less than a decade, the field of minimal access, minimally-invasive, or laparoscopic surgery has thrived and in present day laparoscopic surgery is the operation of choice, for procedures such as cholecystectomy (gallbladder removal) or Nissen fundoplication (wrapping the stomach around the esophagus to correct gastroesophageal reflux disease, commonly known as GERD).

The department of Minimal Access Surgery at Aakash Healthcare Super Speciality Hospital is committed to perform surgical procedures using minimal access techniques whenever possible, so that patients may take pleasure in less post-surgical complications. The new laparoscopic procedures involve less postoperative pain and blood loss, consequently the doctor prescribes less pain medication, which is followed by a faster healing process that gets you back home in no time, with negligible scars after healing.

The surgeons at Aakash Healthcare Super Speciality Hospital include numerous gifted and dexterous surgeons in the country, who make use of minimal access techniques in most of abdominal diseases and disorders, namely hernias, and conditions of the stomach, intestines, gallbladder, and spleen.

Overview: Minimal access surgery also known as laparoscopy surgery is a means of performing surgeries through a small (keyhole) incision instead of large cuts. During the surgery, the surgeons introduce a telescope with a tiny video camera through the small incision to the targeted part of the body and operate it by viewing it on a high-resolution TV monitor. In traditional open surgery, Surgeons are unable to see the targeted part without making a large incision or cuts. Some minimal access surgeries at our hospital are done with robot technology which provides a magnified 3D view of the surgical site and helps the surgeons operate with precision, control, and flexibility. Broadly, minimal access techniques may be categorized as: 

  • Laparoscopy – Telescope used to operate abdomen
  • Thoracoscopy – Telescope used to operate chest
  • Arthroscopy – Telescope used to operate joint

Minimal access surgery has huge advantages over traditional open surgeries. Open surgery requires a large incision, disrupting many other nerves, more bleeding, more painful, long stay in the hospital, and complications post-surgery remain for several months while with minimal access surgery these issues are almost non-existent now. 

Patients who go through minimal access surgery experience less pain, less bleeding, less scarring, and shorter stay in the hospital. The surgery helps in the faster and early recovery of patients and can resume their routine work in no time.

Aakash Healthcare/Hospital is one of the best centres for Minimal access/laparoscopy, Metabolic, and Bariatric Surgery in Delhi-NCR. Our treatment through minimal access surgery includes gastrointestinal/rectal conditions, thyroid, parathyroid, hernias, pancreatic disorder, gall bladder, spleen, kidney, and liver disorders among several others. The cost of minimal access surgery at Aakash Hospital is very less compared to other hospitals in Delhi-NCR even though the surgery and care offered here are at par with global standards.

Benefits of Minimal Access Surgery:

  • Small Incision/cuts
  • Less pain
  • Quick and early recovery
  • Shorter stay 
  • Less bleeding
  • Less scarring

 Aakash Healthcare has one of the best surgeons in Delhi. Our team of highly skilled and experienced doctors is committed to performing surgical procedures using minimal access techniques whenever possible, so that patients may take pleasure in fewer post-surgical complications. The new minimal access/ laparoscopic surgeries involve less postoperative pain and blood loss; consequently, the doctor prescribes less pain medication, which is followed by a faster healing process which helps you resume your routine work in no time.

Laparoscopic / Minimal Access Surgery: Condition & Treatments

  1. Anorectal conditions:

Anorectal conditions are those that affect the anus or rectum. The overgrowth or abnormal growth of tissues in the anus and rectum region is the main cause of these diseases. While talking about these concerns might be humiliating, living with them can be painful/ excruciating. The following are some of the most prevalent anorectal issues:

  • Anal Fistula
  • Piles
  • Fissures
  • Prolapse

What is Anal Fistula?

An anal fistula, also known as a fistula-in-ano, is a tiny channel that forms between the rectum/anal canal's end and the skin near the anus. When passing stools, it might cause bleeding and pain. Typically, a fistula develops post surgery to drain a perianal abscess.

What are the causes of Anal Fistula?

Injury to the skin near the anal opening, usually caused by a hard, dry bowel movement, is the most common cause of an anal fissure. Digital insertion (during an examination), foreign body insertion, or anal intercourse is some of the other causes. During childbirth, pregnant women may develop a fissure.

What are the treatment options for Fistula?

An anal fistula is treated with surgery by a specialist who assesses the depth and extent of the fistula tract. The following forms of surgery are frequently employed in the treatment of this condition:

  • MAFT (Minimally Invasive Fistula Treatment) is a minimally invasive laparoscopic procedure for treating fistulas. The point of internal opening of the fistula is determined by examining the fistula tract using an endoscope. The internal entrance of the fistula is then closed with a stapler, and the whole fistula tract is removed with electrocautery under direct telescopic vision.

Advantages/Benefits of MAFT include:

  • There are no surgical wounds in the buttocks or perianal region.
  • The anal sphincters are unharmed.
  • There are less pre-operative investigations to determine the type of fistula.
  • Return to work and normal routine early.
  • It is possible to do this surgery as a Day-Care procedure.
  • The chances of locating the internal fistula opening (which is crucial in all fistula surgical therapies) are substantially better.
  • The fistulous tract can be entirely eliminated from inside, with no other tissues being harmed.
  • Fistulotomy/Fistulectomy: Most fistulas are treated with a fistulotomy, which involves cutting the skin and muscle around the tunnel open, transforming it into an open groove. The fistula tract can then heal from the inside out.

What is Piles?

Haemorrhoids are another name for piles. Hemorrhoids are tissue masses, clumps, or cushions in the anal canal that are filled with blood vessels, support tissue, muscle, and elastic fibres.. They are divided into two categories: internal and external.

Internal haemorrhoids are located deep within the rectum, where they are not visible or palpable. They usually do not hurt because of the pain-sensing nerves in the rectum. However, the only indication of their existence is bleeding.

External haemorrhoids are located within the anus and are frequently painful. You can see and feel an external haemorrhoid if it prolapses outside (usually while passing a stool).

What are the causes of piles?

Under pressure, the veins around your anus tend to stretch and may bulge or swell. Hemorrhoids can form as a result of increased pressure in the lower rectum caused by:

  • Constant squeezing during bowel movements
  • Sitting on the toilet for long periods
  • Chronic Constipation or diarrhoea
  • Being overweight or obese
  • Being pregnant
  • Engaging in anal intercourse
  • Consuming a low-fiber diet
  • Heavy lifting on a regular basis

What are the symptoms of Haemorrhoids/piles?

Unless internal haemorrhoids prolapse, they rarely cause pain (and are usually not felt). Many people who have internal haemorrhoids are unaware of their condition because they do not show any symptoms.

You may notice blood on toilet paper, in stool, or in the toilet bowl if you have internal haemorrhoids. These symptoms indicate rectal bleeding:

External haemorrhoids can be recognised by the following symptoms:

  • An itchy anus.
  • Hard lumps near the anus that are sore or tender to the touch.
  • Anus pain or ache, especially when sitting.
  • Bleeding in the rectum
  • Hemorrhoids that have prolapsed can be painful and uncomfortable. You might be able to feel them bulging outside the anus and gently push them inside.

Piles/ Haemorrhoids treatment:

The best treatment for piles is to strictly adhere to your doctor's instructions given below at home, both before and after the surgical procedure.

  • Remember to drink a lot of water
  • Consume more fibre to keep your stools soft.
  • To clean up after passing stool, soak your toilet paper in warm water for a few minutes.
  • Take acetaminophen if your piles hurt.
  • You can also take a warm shower to relieve itching and pain.
  • If the piles are coming out of your anus, gently put them back with your finger.
  • To relieve pain, wrap an ice pack in a towel.
  • Maintain personal hygiene while using the restroom/washroom/toilet, and keep your parts dry and clean.
  • Regular exercise can be beneficial.
  • Alcohol and caffeine drinks can aggravate constipation.
  • After you've finished passing the stool, practise wiping it gently.
  • If you feel the need to use the toilet, go ahead and do so.
  • Make an effort not to force your gut out while forcing the stool out.
  • Constipation can be caused by codeine-containing medications. Stay away from them.
  • If you have had bleeding piles, you should avoid taking ibuprofen.
  • Do not use the toilet for an extended period of time.

Surgery for Piles

Haemorrhoidectomy (open pile surgery): In this procedure, the excess tissue that is causing bleeding is surgically removed. It may include a local anaesthetic and sedation, a spinal anaesthetic, or a general anaesthetic. This type of surgery is effective in completely removing piles, but it can cause pain for a few days.

MIPH (Minimally Invasive Procedure for Hemorrhoids): This technique performs surgery using a stapler. It is relatively painless and can be performed as a day care procedure. The vessels at the base of haemorrhoids or piles are stapled and divided high up in the anal canal during this procedure. The external piles are drawn in. The benefits of this procedure include:

  • Postoperative discomfort is minimal.
  • Reduced hospital stay
  • Recovery time is reduced, and patients can resume normal activities more quickly.
  • Excellent cosmetic results

3. Anal Fissure

An anal fissure is a small tear in the skin lining near the anus opening. They are caused by difficult or hard bowel movements that cause severe pain or bleeding. Your doctor may advise you to make a few dietary changes for soft stools, as well as use topical anaesthetics to relieve pain. If surgery is required, your surgeon will work to relax the anal area to reduce anal pain.

Causes of Fissures

Injury to the skin at the anal opening caused by a hard, dry bowel movement is the most common cause of an anal fissure. Digital insertion (during examination), foreign body insertion, and anal intercourse are some of the other causes. During childbirth, pregnant women may also develop a fissure. They can be acute (recently developed) or chronic. Chronic fissures occur frequently or for an extended period of time and are frequently associated with a small external lump known as a skin tag or sentinel pile.

Treatment options available for Anal Fissure:

Anal fissures usually heal in a few weeks if you take steps to keep your stool soft, such as increasing your fibre and fluid intake. Bathing in warm water for 10 to 20 minutes several times a day, particularly after bowel movements, can aid in sphincter relaxation and healing.

Conservative management: Medical management heals at least 50% of anal fissures, which includes topical ointments, sitz baths, dietary changes (i.e. incorporating a high fibre diet and avoiding foods that are poorly digested like maida, popcorn, and chips), drinking plenty of fluids, and using stool softeners/ laxatives.

Surgery is used to treat fissures that have not responded to other treatments. There are two options available:

Chemical Internal Sphincterotomy: A minimally invasive technique for relaxing the anal muscle that involves injecting chemicals into the anal sphincter muscle and partially paralysing it.

Lateral Internal Sphincterotomy: In this procedure, a portion of the anal sphincter muscle is divided, which aids in the healing of the fissure and reduces pain and spasm. If there is a sentinel pile present, it is removed to promote healing. It is a short surgical procedure that can also be done as an outpatient procedure. The chances of this happening again are almost nil. It is the most effective treatment option for fissures that are not healing.


Rectal prolapse occurs when the rectum protrudes through the anal opening due to stretching or disruption of its attachments to the abdominal wall.

What are the causes of prolapse?

The exact cause is unknown. Predisposing factors, on the other hand, include:

  • Prolonged bowel movement straining,
  • Multiple pregnancies
  • neurological illnesses that cause muscle weakness, or connective tissue disorders
  • Rectal prolapse is frequently associated with anal sphincter muscle weakness, resulting in stool leakage and mucus discharge. The elderly are more likely to suffer from this condition.

Treatment options available for prolpase:

The treatment of prolapse is determined by the history of symptoms as well as a physical examination. Defecography is required in the case of an internal rectal prolapse. In some cases of minor, early prolapse, treatment can be started at home by using stool softeners and manually pushing the fallen tissue back into the anus. Prolapse can be repaired surgically in a variety of ways. The laparoscopic surgeon will decide whether to perform surgery based on the patient's age, other existing health problems, the extent of the prolapse, the results of the examination and other tests, and his experience with specific techniques.

It includes three distinct methods, each of which is used depending on the nature of the prolapse.

  1. Perineal approaches to rectal prolapse

MIPH (Minimally Invasive Procedure for Hemorrhoids): This procedure is only used in cases of partial or mucosal prolapse.

The Altemeier procedure (also known as a proctosigmoidectomy) involves removing the prolapsed part of the rectum and suturing the cut edges together.

Thiersch wiring is a temporary procedure that involves wiring the anal verge to narrow the opening. The procedure is extremely painful.

Because the perineal approach is minimally invasive, it has several advantages, including:

  • Reduced operative time
  • Blood loss is reduced.
  • Improved recovery time
  • Less post-operative discomfort
  1. Approaches to abdominal repair

To view and operate in the abdominal cavity, an incision in the abdominal muscles is required. This procedure is most commonly performed under general anaesthesia on healthy adults. The following are the two most common types of abdominal repair:

Rectopexy (fixation [reattachment] of the rectum). Rectopexy can also be done laparoscopically via small keyhole incisions.

For patients with severe constipation, resection (removal of an intestine segment) is followed by rectopexy. This can also be done laparoscopically.

  1. Hernia- Types, causes, Symptoms,  and Treatment

What is Hernia?

A hernia occurs when an organ or fatty tissue passes through a weak point in the fascia, which is the surrounding muscle or connective tissue. Inguinal hernias (internal groin), incisional hernias (as a result of a cut), femoral hernias (external groin), umbilical hernias (navel), and hiatal hernias are the most common types of hernias (upper abdomen).

Inguinal Hernia: The intestine or bladder protrudes through the abdominal wall or into the inguinal canal in the groin in an inguinal hernia. Inguinal hernias account for approximately 96 percent of all groyne hernias, with the majority occurring in men due to a natural weakness in this area.

Incisional hernia: - The intestine pushes through the abdominal wall at the site of previous abdominal surgery in an incisional hernia. This type is most common in elderly or obese people who are physically inactive following abdominal surgery.

Femoral hernia: - When the intestine enters the canal carrying the femoral artery into the upper thigh, it causes a femoral hernia. Femoral hernias are most common in women, especially pregnant or obese women.

Umbilical hernia:-  With an umbilical hernia, part of the small intestine crosses the abdominal wall near the navel. Common in newborns, it also tends to affect women who are obese or who have many children.

Hiatal hernia: - A hiatal hernia occurs when the upper part of the stomach pushes through the hiatus, an opening in the diaphragm through which the esophagus passes.

Causes of Hernia:

Ultimately, all hernias are caused by a combination of pressure and a weakness or opening in muscle or fascia; the pressure pushes an organ or tissue through the weakness or opening. Muscle weakness can occur at birth, but it is more common later in life.

A hernia can be caused by anything that causes an increase in abdominal pressure, such as:

Sign & Symptoms of Hernia:

Each hernia is unique, and hernia symptoms can appear gradually or suddenly. Different people experience pain in varying degrees. Some people even have the sensation that something has ruptured or given way. The more intriguing ones, on the other hand, are:

  • A visible protrusion or bulge at the site of a hernia that appears when standing or straining and disappears when lying down.
  • While coughing and sneezing, the bulge may increase.
  • Experiencing pain while lifting weights.
  • A dull aching feeling
  • A hazy sense of fullness
  • Constipation and nausea
  • Hernias can be painful or non-painful. A hernia is typically detected through a physical examination of the abdomen.

Treatment for Hernia

Surgery is the only way to treat a hernia. A hernia will not go away on its own, but will grow in size if left untreated. Untreated hernias can also cause obstruction (intestinal blockage) and "strangulation," which requires immediate medical attention. Strangulation occurs when the blood supply to the herniated bowel is cut off or greatly reduced, causing the bowel tissue to die or rupture. Smaller hernias have better surgical outcomes than larger hernias. Hernia surgery consists of:

Laparoscopic hernia surgery – It  is a minimally invasive approach that involves the use of a laparoscope and allows a laparoscopic surgeon to repair the weakened area through several small incisions (about a half-centimetre) and the use of a non absorbable mesh to cover the weak area.

Instructions before Hernia surgery:

  • Before surgery, some vital tests must be performed.
  • For any prescribed medications, follow your surgeon's instructions.
  • Avoid taking any medications for at least 5 days before the surgery.
  • For a few days before surgery, abstain from alcohol and tobacco.
  • After midnight the day before surgery, the patient is not allowed to take anything orally except medicines.

 Post-operative instructions:

What are the advantages of Laparoscopic surgery for Hernia treatment?

Laparoscopic surgery is performed by hernia specialists who are highly skilled and extensively trained. The following are some advantages of minimal incision laparoscopic surgery:

  • Because the incisions are so small, there is little chance of infection.
  • The incisions are extremely small.
  • Laparoscopic surgery employs a miniature camera to provide the surgeon with a closer and more detailed view of the internal organs. They are able to work with incredible efficiency and skill.
  • Short hospital stay and recovery period
  • There is very little postoperative pain.
  • During the operation, a second hernia on the opposite side can be checked for and repaired.
  • Return to work and normal activities early
  • Excellent cosmetic outcomes
  • The patient is kept under observation for 2-4 hours before being transferred to the room.
  • The patient is permitted to sip oral liquids on the day of surgery and to eat meals the following morning.
  • On the same day as the surgery, the patient is allowed to move around and use the restroom on his own.
  • In most cases, the patient is discharged the same day or the next day after surgery.
  • The dressings are removed during the first follow-up visit, which usually takes place within 2-5 days.
  • The patient is instructed to strictly adhere to the doctor's diet recommendations.
  • A medication chart is given to the patient to ensure that prescribed medications are taken as prescribed. It is recommended that you follow up on a regular basis.

Make an appointment with Aakash Healthcare for Hernia treatment. At Aakash Healthcare, we have one of the best hernia doctors and laparoscopic surgeons, and we are regarded as one of the best hospitals for laparoscopic surgery in Dwarka, Delhi.

  1.   Intestinal Obstruction


An intestinal obstruction is a blockage that prevents food or liquid from passing through your small or large intestine (colon). Without treatment, the blocked parts of the intestine can die, causing serious problems. However, with prompt medical attention, intestinal obstruction can often be successfully treated. A minimally invasive procedure is commonly used to treat gastrointestinal diseases. Unlike traditional intestine surgery, which requires a long incision down the centre of the abdomen, laparoscopic surgery only requires small "keyhole" incisions in the abdomen.

What causes an intestinal blockage?

The following are some of the potential causes of an intestinal blockage:

  • Scarring in the abdomen- These are tissue growths that push your intestines out of place.
  • Hernia - A hernia is a split in the muscle wall of your abdomen. Hernias can cause bulges and pockets. These may cause a blockage in your intestine.
  • Volvulus - This happens when a section of your intestine twists around itself, causing a blockage.
  • Intussusception - In this condition, a section of your intestine slides into another section. This causes your intestine to narrow but not always completely block.
  • Scarring - Scar tissue forms when your body heals minor wounds or cuts. This can also happen inside your intestine. These scars can accumulate and cause partial or complete intestinal blockages. Scarring can occur as a result of intestinal wall tears or infections. These scars, known as adhesions, form in your abdomen following abdominal or pelvic surgery. Adhesions from surgery can sometimes cause problems many years later.
  • Tumors - These growths have the potential to obstruct your intestine.
  • Objects that are swallowed - Nonfood objects that you swallow could cause a partial or complete blockage.
  • Diverticulum Meckel - Few people are born with this extra small pouch inside the intestine.
  • Stricture - An unusual narrowing of a bodily passage (as from inflammation, cancer, or the formation of scar tissue)

Symptoms of Intestinal Obstruction:-

The following are signs and symptoms of intestinal obstruction:

  • Abdominal cramping that comes and goes
  • Appetite loss
  • Constipation
  • Vomiting
  • Inability to pass gas or have a bowel movement
  • Abdominal swollenness

How is a blockage in the intestine diagnosed?

Your healthcare provider will consider the following factors when diagnosing your condition:

  • Your overall health as well as your medical history
  • Changes in bowel habits or appetite
  • A physical examination
  • The outcomes of imaging tests such as an abdominal X-ray, a barium contrast study, or a CT scan (computed tomography)
  • The location and severity of any discomfort or pain
  • Any other unusual symptoms, such as digestive sounds or bloating

Risk Factors for Intestinal blockage:

The following diseases and conditions can increase your risk of intestinal obstruction:

  • Abdominal cancer
  • Abdominal surgery, which can increase the risk of scar tissue or other growths.
  • Diverticulosis, a condition that can cause inflammation, infection, scarring, and blockage of the intestine.
  • Scars from things like radiation damage or Crohn's disease

Treatment for Intestinal Blockage:

The treatment for your intestinal blockage will be determined by the cause.

Many blockages will dissolve on their own with supportive care. It is best to avoid surgery because it can sometimes result in more scarring. Your doctor may advise you to avoid eating or limit yourself to clear liquids until your symptoms improve. Following this, a "low-residue" diet may be recommended to try to get things moving. This diet includes foods and liquids such as yoghurt that will not contribute to the blockage. Instead of more invasive surgery, your healthcare provider may use a small, flexible tube to remove intestinal contents until the bowel blockage is cleared. You will require IV (intravenous) fluids as well as electrolyte replacement. You may also require pain medication.

If your intestine is completely blocked (no food or stool can pass through), you will require immediate surgery. The goal is to clear the obstruction and repair your organs.

If the blockage is caused by a hernia, your provider may recommend that the hernia be repaired.

If the blockage is caused by inflammation, such as Crohn's disease, your provider may recommend medications to treat the disease.

Strictures, Benign Tumours, and Meckel’s diverticulum are the common conditions that require surgery for small intestine.

Strictures are narrowings of some parts of intestines that cause problems by slowing or blocking the movement of food through that area. They are caused by recurrent inflammation and can lead to hospitalization due to partial obstruction. Strictures can also cause intestinal obstruction, which can result in bowel perforation. This perforation can lead to severe infection of the abdominal cavity (peritonitis), abscesses (infection and pus collections), and fistulae (tubular passageways originating from the bowel wall and connecting to other organs or the skin). Besides that, small bowel strictures can result in bacterial overgrowth, which is another intestinal complication of IBD (Inflammatory Bowel Disease)

Strictures are most commonly caused by inflammatory bowel diseases such as tuberculosis, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn's disease. They can also develop as a result of tumours, adhesions, or radiation therapy. The common symptoms include abdominal cramping, nausea, vomiting, bloating, and inability to pass stools or flauts. CT scan and abdominal x-ray are used to diagnose Strictures.

Treatment for Strictures:  Laparoscopic and open surgeries are the two ways to perform the procedure. In open surgery a large surgical cut is made across the abdomen, either to the left or to the middle while in the laparoscopic surgery two-three small incisions are made in the abdomen and laparoscope and other surgical instruments are inserted through the made incisions and then the compromised section of the intestine is removed, and the healthy ends are stapled or stitched together.

Benign tumours in small intestine:-

The small intestine (small bowel) is a digestive organ that connects the stomach and colon. It is divided into three sections: the duodenum, the jejunum, and the ileum. The duodenum is a common site for the onset of small intestine cancer. Small intestine cancer comes in many forms, including the most common, adenocarcinoma, as well as sarcoma, neuroendocrine tumours (NETs), lymphoma, and gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs). Small intestine cancer frequently starts as a benign (non-cancerous) tumour or neoplasm, such as an adenoma or leiomyoma, discovered by chance during an examination or operation for another condition.

Treatment for benign tumours – Laparoscopic Surgery is the most effective treatment for removing benign intestinal tumours and the only treatment that can cure small intestine cancer. Our board-certified surgeons are skilled in all proven and cutting-edge procedures, such as surgical resection and the complex pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple procedure). Aakash Healthcare doctors are experts in the most recent minimally invasive procedures and are considered one of the best doctors for laparoscopic surgery in Dwarka,Delhi and India.

Meckel's diverticulum

A diverticulum is an abnormal sac or pouch that forms at a weak point in the intestines. Diverticula of various types can develop as you age. Meckel's diverticulum refers to a diverticulum in the intestines that is present at birth.

Meckel's diverticulum usually appears between the fifth and seventh weeks of foetal development. Because the condition is present at birth, it is classified as a congenital health problem.

   Causes and symptoms of Meckel’s diverticulum:-

During early pregnancy, it occurs in the foetus. The vitelline duct connects the developing foetus to the yolk sac and is absorbed by the seventh week of pregnancy. A Meckel's diverticulum develops if the vitelline duct is not completely absorbed. Cells from the pancreas and stomach could be present. Ulcers and bleeding can occur if the stomach secretes acid. The most common symptoms appear during a child's first year of life and can reoccur in adulthood. These are:

  • intestine blockage
  • intestine bleeding, resulting in bloody stools
  • The intestines are inflamed.
  • pain or discomfort ranging from mild to severe
  • vomiting and nausea
  • anaemia

Laparoscopic surgery for Meckel’s diverticulum:-

  • Two to three small incisions are made in the abdomen, and a laparoscope is inserted through one of them, allowing the surgeon to see the abdomen on a video monitor.
  • Other incisions are used to insert surgical instruments.
  • The Meckel's diverticulum, as well as the surrounding compromised portions of the small intestine, is removed by the surgeon. 
  • The healthy ends of the remaining small intestine are stapled or stitched back together.


  • Postoperative discomfort is minimal.
  • A shorter hospital stay and a faster return to work and normal activities
  • Excellent cosmetic outcomes

Make an appointment with Aakash Healthcare for intestinal blockage treatment. At Aakash Healthcare, we have one of the best doctors and laparoscopic surgeons for intestinal blockage, and we are regarded as one of the best hospitals for laparoscopic surgery in Dwarka, Delhi.

  1. Appendix

What is an Appendix?

The appendix is a small pouch attached to the large intestine. It is located in the lower right quadrant of your abdomen. If you have appendicitis, your appendix must be removed as soon as possible. If left untreated, your appendix can rupture. This is a medical situation that requires immediate attention.

What are the signs and symptoms of Appendicitis?

Appendicitis can cause the following signs and symptoms:

  • Pain that starts on the right side of the lower abdomen and spreads
  • Pain that begins around your navel and frequently spreads to your lower right abdomen.
  • Pain that worsens with coughing, walking, or other jarring movements
  • Vomiting and nausea
  • Appetite loss
  • Fever that may worsen as the illness progresses
  • Diarrhea or constipation
  • Bloating in the abdomen
  • Flatulence

Causes of Appendicitis:

Appendicitis is most likely caused by a blockage in the lining of the appendix, which leads to infection. The bacteria multiply quickly, inflaming, swelling, and filling the appendix with pus. The appendix can rupture if not treated promptly.


An appendicitis diagnosis begins with a thorough history and physical examination. When the doctor physically examines the right lower abdomen, there is moderate to severe tenderness, as patients usually have an elevated temperature. If the inflammation has spread to the peritoneum, there may be rebound tenderness. Rebound tenderness is pain that worsens when the doctor quickly releases his or her hand after gently pressing on the tender area of the abdomen.

Typically, the following tests are used to make the diagnosis:

  • A blood test will be performed to look for signs of infection.
  • To rule out other conditions, such as a bladder infection, a urine test is performed.
  • To determine whether the appendix is swollen, a computerised tomography (CT) scan or an ultrasound scan is used.

Treatment for Appendicitis:

Appendicitis is typically treated with surgery to remove the inflamed appendix. Antibiotics may be administered prior to surgery to treat infection.

Appendectomy surgery is performed to remove the appendix (appendectomy)

Appendectomy can be performed as an open procedure with a single abdominal incision measuring 2 to 4 inches (5 to 10 centimetres) in length (laparotomy). Alternatively, the surgery can be performed through a few small abdominal incisions (laparoscopic surgery). The surgeon inserts special surgical tools and a video camera into your abdomen during a laparoscopic appendectomy to remove your appendix.

Advantages/Benefits of Laparoscopic surgery for Appendix – Laparoscopic surgery in general, allows you to recover faster and heal with less pain and scarring. It may be preferable for older adults and people who are obese.

However, laparoscopic surgery is not for everyone. If your appendix has ruptured and infection has spread beyond the appendix, or if you have an abscess, your surgeon may recommend an open appendectomy to clean the abdominal cavity.

After your appendectomy, you should expect to stay in the hospital for one or two days.

If your appendix bursts and an abscess forms around it, the abscess can be drained by inserting a tube through your skin into the abscess. After the infection has been controlled, an appendectomy can be performed several weeks later.

  1. Gall Bladder Stone Surgery:

Gallstones or Gall bladder stones are hardened deposits of digestive fluid in the gallbladder. The gallbladder is a small, pear-shaped organ located on the right side of the abdomen, just beneath the liver. The gallbladder stores bile, a digestive fluid that is released into the small intestine.

Gallstones can be as small as a grain of sand or as large as a golf ball in size. Some people develop one gallstone at a time, while others develop several gallstones at the same time. Gallstones that cause symptoms usually require gallbladder removal surgery. Gallstones that do not cause any symptoms usually do not require treatment.

What are the causes of Gallbladder stones?

  • Overweight people are more likely to develop gallstones.
  • Excess estrogen from multiple pregnancies, hormone replacement therapy, or birth control pills can raise cholesterol levels in bile, slow gallbladder emptying, and result in gallstones.
  • Gallstones can form in people who have biliary infections.
  • People who have hereditary blood disorders, such as sickle cell anaemia, are more likely to develop pigment stones.
  • Excessive dieting and the use of certain cholesterol-lowering medications can also raise the risk of gallstone formation.

What are symptoms of Gallbladder stones?

Gallstones may not show any signs or symptoms. If a gallstone becomes lodged in a duct and causes a blockage, the following signs and symptoms may occur:

  • Sudden and rapidly worsening pain in the upper right quadrant of your abdomen
  • Sudden and rapidly worsening pain in the centre of your abdomen, just below your breastbone
  • Back pain between the shoulder blades
  • Right shoulder pain
  • Vomiting or nausea

Types of Gallstones or Gallbladder:

Gallstones that can form in the gallbladder include:

Cholesterol gallstones - The most common type of gallstone, known as a cholesterol gallstone, is often yellow in colour. These gallstones are mostly made up of undissolved cholesterol, but they may also contain other substances.

Pigment gallstones - When your bile contains too much bilirubin, these dark brown or black stones form.

Risk factors of gallstones:

  • Women are more vulnerable than men.
  • People in their thirties and forties
  • Men and women who are overweight
  • People who have lost a lot of weight in a short period of time
  • Pregnant women, women on hormone therapy, and long-term users of birth control pills
  • Consuming a high-fat diet
  • Consumption of a high-cholesterol diet
  • Consuming a low-fiber diet
  • Having a history of gallstones in one's family
  • Diabetic condition
  • Having a blood disorder like sickle cell anaemia or leukaemia
  • Rapidly losing weight
  • Using estrogen-containing medications, such as oral contraceptives or hormone therapy drugs
  • Being sick with liver disease

Complications caused by gallbladder stones:

Gallbladder inflammation - A gallstone that becomes lodged in the gallbladder's neck can cause gallbladder inflammation (cholecystitis). Cholecystitis can cause excruciating pain and a high fever.

Common bile duct obstruction - Gallstones can clog the ducts that carry bile from your gallbladder or liver to your small intestine. Severe pain, jaundice, and bile duct infection are possible outcomes.

The pancreatic duct is obstructed - The pancreatic duct is a tube that connects the pancreas to the common bile duct just before it enters the duodenum. The pancreatic duct transports pancreatic juices, which aid digestion.

A gallstone can cause a blockage in the pancreatic duct, resulting in pancreatic inflammation (pancreatitis). Pancreatitis is characterised by severe, constant abdominal pain and usually necessitates hospitalisation.

Cancer of the gallbladder - People who have a history of gallstones are more likely to develop gallbladder cancer. However, gallbladder cancer is extremely rare, so even though the risk of cancer is increased, the likelihood of gallbladder cancer remains extremely low.

Diagnosis of gallbladder stone or gallstones:

The following tests and procedures are used to diagnose gallstones and gallstone complications:

Ultrasound of the abdomen. This is the most commonly used test for detecting gallstones. Abdominal ultrasound is performed by moving a device (transducer) across your stomach. The transducer transmits signals to a computer, which generates images of the structures in your abdomen.

Blood tests are performed - LFT, CBC,  Coagulation profile and some other blood tests may reveal infection, jaundice, pancreatitis, or other gallstone-related complications.

Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) - This procedure can aid in the detection of smaller stones that an abdominal ultrasound may miss. During EUS, your doctor will insert a thin, flexible tube (endoscope) into your mouth and digestive tract. In the tube, a small ultrasound device (transducer) generates sound waves that create a precise image of the surrounding tissue.

Some other imaging tests - Oral cholecystography, a hepatobiliary iminodiacetic acid (HIDA) scan, computerised tomography (CT), magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) may be performed as additional tests (ERCP). Gallstones discovered during an ERCP procedure can be removed.

Gallbladder stones or Gallstones treatment:

Cholecystectomy, or gallbladder removal surgery, is one of the most common operations performed on adults in India. Because the gallbladder isn't a necessary organ, you can live a healthy life without it.

Cholecystectomy can be of two types:

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy- This is a common procedure that requires general anaesthesia. In most cases, the surgeon will make three or four incisions in your abdomen. They'll then carefully remove your gallbladder after inserting a small, lighted device into one of the incisions to check for stones. If there are no complications, you can usually go home the same day or the next day.

Open cholecystectomy - When the gallbladder is inflamed, infected, or scarred, this surgery is usually performed. This surgery may also be performed if complications arise during a laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

Non-surgical approaches for gallbladder stone – Medication can also be used to treat gallbladders tones, especially for those older patients who are not fit for anaesthesia and surgery. However, it may take months or years of treatment to dissolve your gallstones in this manner, and if treatment is discontinued, gallstones will most likely form again.

What are the advantages/benefits of Laparoscopic cholecystectomy?

Laparoscopy has gained widespread acceptance in surgical approaches to abdominal wall hernias, as well as intestinal and solid organ resection. No other operation, however, has been as profoundly influenced by the advent of laparoscopy as cholecystectomy. In fact, laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has clearly replaced open gallbladder removal as the procedure of choice for routine gallbladder removal. The benefits of this approach include less scarring, less incisional pain, a shorter hospital stay, and faster functional recovery.

Aakash Healthcare, Dwarka Delhi is considered one of the best gallbladder stone surgery hospitals in Delhi.

Post operative instructions: -

  • The patient is kept under observation for a few hours before being transferred to the room.
  • On the day of surgery, the patient is permitted to drink oral liquids.
  • The patient is allowed to move around as soon as possible after surgery.
  • Depending on the clinical condition, the patient is usually discharged the same or next day after surgery.
  • Waterproof dressings are applied to the port sites, and the patient is free to bathe when he or she is ready.
  • The patient is advised to return in 5 days after the dressings have been removed. On discharge, the patient is given a discharge summary that includes the recommended medication as well as the date of the first follow-up appointment.
  • A 24-hour helpline is available for any questions or emergencies.

Diet post surgery:

  • When you get home from your surgery, you can resume your normal diet. You may want to avoid heavy foods after your surgery and only drink liquids that day.
  • You may eat whatever you want the day after your surgery. For the first two weeks after surgery, you should avoid eating fatty foods. You should abstain from carbonated beverages for a few days.

Exercise post Laparoscopic cholecystectomy or gallbladder stone removal surgery:

Laparoscopic surgery recovery is much faster, and exercise can be resumed sooner. For the first 24 to 48 hours, avoid vigorous exercise. Walking, on the other hand, is essential during this time, and you should get up and walk as much as you can. Begin slowly and gradually increase your activity level in accordance with your body's needs. Generally, you should avoid  heavy activity for three to five days, but this varies depending on the individual and their underlying fitness. Wait until your follow-up appointment, which should be seven to fourteen days after your surgery, before returning to your normal pre-surgery routine.

Book an appointment today with the best gall bladder specialists at Aakash Healthcare super speciality hospital, Dwarka Delhi.

    Solid Organ Surgery

The human body's abdominal cavity contains both hollow and solid organs, all of which play important roles in digestion and other functions. The liver, spleen, kidneys, adrenal glands, and pancreas are examples of solid organs.

There are numerous surgeries that can be performed on solid organs, including resection (removal). Most surgeries, with a few exceptions, can be performed laparoscopically or robotically, which is generally more comfortable than open surgery.

Solid organs of the body:-

Liver - The liver is the largest internal organ of the body, located directly beneath the diaphragm, and is made up of two lobes, lobules, and bile ducts:

  •  lobe to the left
  •  Right lobe
  •  Lobules – a liver-supporting framework that is primarily concerned with blood flow and other liver functions.
  •  Bile ducts – transport bile from the liver to the gallbladder.

Primary functions of liver include:-

  •  Break down and remove old red blood cells, as well as recycle iron from haemoglobin.
  •  Toxins that enter the body are detoxified. Iron and vitamins are stored.
  •  Develop plasma proteins
  •  Aid in the digestion of all foods (carbohydrates, fats and proteins)
  •  Its bile ducts secrete bile.

In the small intestine, bile is essential for fat digestion and absorption. Many waste products are excreted from the body through bile secretion and subsequent elimination in feces

Spleen - The spleen is a small oval organ located above the left kidney and behind the lower part of the stomach. The organ's size varies and can enlarge and atrophy, particularly in old age.

What are the functions of the Spleen?

The functions of the spleen include:

  •   Removing and destroying microorganisms from the blood
  •   Repair of tissues
  •   Red blood cells and platelets that are faulty or old are destroyed.
  •   Acting as a blood reservoir, releasing extra blood to the body when required

Because the spleen contains a large volume of blood, especially at rest, an injury or rupture of the spleen can result in extensive internal bleeding and death.

Kidney - The kidneys are bean-shaped organs about the size of a fist that are located beneath the rib cage, one on each side of the spine.

 The kidneys are responsible for filtering and removing waste from the blood.

Adrenal Glands - The adrenal glands fit over the top of the kidneys like a cap. They are divided into two sections:

Adrenal cortex – outer portion

Adrenal medulla – inner portion

 The adrenal glands secrete various types of corticosteroids, each with its own function. They also secrete hormones.

Aldosterone aids kidney function and maintains sodium (salt) homeostasis in the blood by adjusting sodium, potassium, and pH levels. Epinephrine, norepinephrine, and glucocorticoids all have an effect on the autonomic nervous system as a response to stressful and inflammatory conditions, among other things. Sexual hormones are also secreted by the adrenal glands.


The pancreas is a small, banana-sized organ in the upper abdomen near the spine and partially behind the stomach.

The pancreas secretes pancreatic juice, which contains digestive enzymes. The pancreas also performs important endocrine functions, which include the production and secretion of pancreatic hormones such as insulin and glucagon, which regulate blood sugar levels in the body.

What are the types of Solid Organ Surgery?

Liver Surgery - The surgical removal of the liver is known as a "hepactectomy." For liver transplantation, partial hepatectomies are performed. The extent of surgery is determined by the patient's condition as well as the liver's function. A portion of the liver or an entire lobe may be removed by the surgeon. In a partial hepatectomy, however, the surgeon leaves a margin of healthy liver tissue. Only in a few cases is a liver transplant required.

Laparoscopic hepactectomy-

  • Two to three tiny incisions are made in the abdomen by the surgeon to insert tube-like surgical instruments.
  • To aid the surgeon's view of the abdominal cavity, the abdomen is filled with gas, usually carbon dioxide.
  • The surgeon then inserts the laparoscope and instruments through these incisions and removes the affected portion of the liver, which is placed inside a bag inside the body.

Spleen removal surgery ( Splenectomy) -

A splenectomy is the surgical removal of the spleen. A partial splenectomy is when part of the spleen is removed, and a total splenectomy is when the entire spleen is removed.

Splenectomy is a surgical procedure used to treat diseases, symptoms, and conditions affecting the spleen, such as:

  • The most common reason for splenectomy is a ruptured spleen, which usually occurs as a result of a severe abdominal injury or an enlarged spleen (splenomegaly)
  • Infection with a splenic abscess that is resistant to other treatments
  • Blood disorders that are resistant to other treatments, such as idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, polycythemia vera, sickle cell disease, and thalassemia
  • Cancers such as chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, Hodgkin's lymphoma, non-lymphoma, Hodgkin's and hairy cell leukaemia are examples of blood cancers.
  • A noncancerous cyst or tumour within the spleen that cannot be removed.
  • Spleen enlargement resulting in pain and a feeling of fullness
  • Hereditary spherocystosis (HS)
  • Aneurysm of the splenic artery


  • Laparoscopic Splenectomy –
  • The procedure is carried out under general anaesthesia.
  • A cannula is inserted into the abdomen, causing it to inflate with carbon dioxide gas to create a working space.
  • A laparoscope is inserted through one of the cannulas, and a video image of the internal organs and spleen is projected on a television monitor.
  • Several cannulas are placed in various locations on the abdomen to allow the surgeon to insert instruments into your stomach to remove your spleen.
  • After the spleen has been severed from everything to which it is attached, it is placed inside a special bag. The bag containing the spleen is inserted into one of your abdomen's smallest but largest incisions.

Surgery for Kidney ( Nephroctomy)  - The term "nephrectomy" refers to a surgical procedure that removes all or part of the kidney. It is also used to remove a healthy kidney from a donor in preparation for transplantation.

For a diseased kidney, there are two types of nephrectomy:

Complete nephrectomy: This procedure involves removing the entire kidney.

Partial nephrectomy: A partial nephrectomy removes only the diseased or injured portion of the kidney.

Laparoscopic nephrectomy- 

  • The procedure is carried out under general anaesthesia.
  • It is carried out through a few small punctures or incisions in the abdomen.
  • Through these keyhole incisions, a laparoscope and instruments are inserted into the abdomen, allowing the surgeon to dissect the kidney.
  • The kidney is then placed in a plastic bag and removed via an extension of pre-existing incision sites.

Adrenalectomy ( Removal of Adrenal glands) - An adrenalectomy is a surgical procedure that removes one or both of the adrenal glands via minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery, traditional open surgery, or cryoablation.

 Adrenalectomy is a surgical procedure used to treat diseases, symptoms, and conditions affecting one or both adrenal glands, such as:

  • Adrenal tumours, benign or cancerous – most common indication; one or both adrenal glands may be removed; most adrenal tumours are benign (noncancerous)
  • Excess hormone production, usually as a result of a tumour
  • Greater than two-inch increase in gland size

Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy –

  • The procedure is carried out under complete general anaesthesia.
  • A few small punctures are made in the abdominal cavity, either in the upper abdomen or on the flank, just below the ribs.
  • A camera-equipped laparoscope is inserted through the cannula.
  • Other cannulas are inserted as well, allowing the surgeon to carefully separate the adrenal gland from its attachments. After the adrenal gland has been dissected, it is placed in a small bag and removed through one of the incisions.
  • The small incisions are closed after the adrenal gland is removed.

Pancreatectomy( part of complete removal of Pancreas) –

A pancreatectomy is the surgical removal of all or part of the pancreas. A distal pancreatomy is a surgery that removes the pancreas's body and tail, as well as the spleen. The lower part is referred to as distal.

A distal pancreatectomy is typically performed to remove benign or malignant pancreatic tumours found in the body or tail of the pancreas. Chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic injuries are also indications for a distal pancreatectomy.

A pancreatectomy is used to treat a wide range of diseases and conditions involving the pancreas, including:

  • Cancer of the pancreas
  • Islet cell tumours, ampullary cancer, lymphoma, and papillary cystic neoplasms are examples of benign and malignant tumours.
  • Cancer of the bile duct's distal (lower) portion
  • Cancer of the duodenum
  • Inflammation
  • Pancreatitis necrotizing
  • Chronic pancreatitis that is severe
  • Hypoglycemia with severe hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia
  • Trauma

Laparaoscopic  Pancreatectomy-

  • A few punctures/incisions are made by the surgeon to insert tube-like surgical trochars.
  • To aid the surgeon's view of the abdominal cavity, the abdomen is filled with gas, usually carbon dioxide.
  • Through incisions, a laparoscope and instruments are inserted.
  • A camera is inserted into one of the tubes and images are displayed on a monitor in the operating room.
  • If a partial pancreatectomy is performed, the blood vessels are clamped and cut, and the pancreas is stapled and divided for removal. The spleen is also removed if the disease affects the splenic artery or vein.
  • When performing a total pancreatectomy, the surgeon removes the entire pancreas as well as any attached organs.

Book an appointment at Aakash Healthcare if you have a condition affecting one of the solid organs. We can diagnose your condition and advise you on the most effective and tolerable treatment options for your specific situation. We are considered one of the best centers/hospitals for laparoscopic surgery in Dwarka Delhi. The department has best team of laparoscopic surgeons.

  1. Thyroid Disorders and its Treatment:

Overview: The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped organ that is located at the base of your neck. It causes the release of hormones that regulate metabolism. It is about 2 inches long and is located in front of your throat, just below the prominence of thyroid cartilage known as the Adam's apple. The thyroid has two sides called lobes that lie on either side of your windpipe and are usually connected by an isthmus, which is a strip of thyroid tissue. Some people lack an isthmus and instead have two distinct thyroid lobes.

The thyroid gland is controlled by two brain regions: the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. The hypothalamus in our brain produces thyrotropin-releasing hormone, (TRH). The release of thyrotropin-releasing hormone signals the pituitary gland to release thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). This thyroid-stimulating hormone, which circulates in your bloodstream, instructs the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones and release them into your bloodstream.

Triiodothyronine (abbreviated as T3) and thyroxine are the two main hormones released by the thyroid gland (abbreviated as T4). These are in responsible for supplying energy to the cells of our body and are one of the primary hormones that regulate the body's metabolism.

Thyroid hormones regulate vital body functions such as:

  • Menstruation cycles
  • The body's temperature
  • Cholesterol levels
  • Breathing
  • The heart rate
  • Nervous systems, both central and peripheral
  • Body weight
  • Muscle strength

Common Thyroid disorders include:-

  • Goitres - A goitre is a swelling in the neck. A toxic goitre is caused by hyperthyroidism, whereas a non-toxic goitre, also known as a simple or endemic goitre, is caused by an iodine deficiency.
  • Hyperthyroidism- It is caused by an excess of thyroid hormone. Hyperthyroidism can occasionally cause goitre. Anxiety, irritability or moodiness, hyperactivity, sweating or sensitivity to high temperatures, hand trembling, hair loss, and missed or light menstrual periods are all symptoms of hyperthyroidism.
  • Hypothyrodism - Hypothyroidism is a common condition characterised by a lack of thyroid hormone. The condition is known as cretinism in infants. Cretinism has severe side effects, such as abnormal bone formation and mental retardation. Adult hypothyroidism symptoms may include difficulty sleeping, tiredness and fatigue, difficulty concentrating, dry skin and hair, depression, sensitivity to cold temperatures, frequent and heavy periods, and joint and muscle pain. Hypothyroidism frequently goes unnoticed for years before being diagnosed.
  • Thyroid nodules - Solitary thyroid nodules, or lumps, are actually quite common; in fact, it is estimated that more than half of the population will have a thyroid nodule. The vast majority of nodules are harmless. A fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA) is usually used to determine whether a nodule is cancerous.
  • Thyroid Cancer - Thyroid cancer is fairly common, but the long-term survival rate is very high. Thyroid cancer patients may experience symptoms such as hoarseness, neck pain, and enlarged lymph nodes on occasion. Thyroid cancer can strike anyone at any age, but women and people over thirty are more likely to be affected.
  • Thyroiditis - Thyroiditis is a thyroid inflammation that can lead to abnormal thyroid function (particularly hyperthyroidism). Inflammation can cause thyroid cells to die, rendering the thyroid incapable of producing enough hormones to keep the body's metabolism running normally. Thyroiditis is classified into five types, with each having its own treatment.

Thyroid symptoms:

  • Loss or gain of weight: A significant change in weight indicates an abnormal function of the thyroid gland. Low thyroid hormone levels (hypothyroidism) can cause weight gain, whereas unexpected weight loss can indicate that too many thyroid hormones are produced (hyperthyroidism). Hypothyroidism is far more prevalent than hyperthyroidism.
  • Energy or mood change - Thyroid disorders can have an impact on emotions, energy, and mood. Depression, tiredness, and sluggishness are all symptoms of hypothyroidism. Sleep disturbances, irritability, anxiety, and restlessness are all symptoms of hyperthyroidism.
  • Neck Swelling - A goitre is an enlargement of the thyroid gland that causes swelling in the neck. A goitre can be caused by both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. It can also be caused by tumours or nodules that form within the thyroid gland.
  • Body temperature is too cold or too hot: Because the thyroid regulates body temperature, those with hypothyroidism frequently report feeling cold. Hyperthyroidism, on the other hand, is characterised by excessive sweating and aversion to heat.
  • Changes in heart rate: Hormones produced by the thyroid gland have an impact on nearly every organ in the body, including the heart. Hypothyroidism causes the heart to beat slowly, whereas hyperthyroidism causes the heart to beat fast.  Excess of thyroid hormone can also cause an increase in blood pressure and the sensation that your heart is pounding (palpitations).
  • Hair loss – It is a common symptom of thyroid disease. Thyroid hormone levels that are too high or too low can both cause hair loss. When the condition is treated, the hair usually grows back.

Some signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism  include memory loss, Fatigue, Lethargy, memory loss, dry skin, goitre, depression, weight gain, hair loss and bloating and signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism include anxiety, weakness, irregular heartbeat, excessive perspiration, irritability and tremor.

Infant hypothyroidism

Although hypothyroidism most commonly affects middle-aged and older women, it can affect anyone, including infants. Babies born without a thyroid gland or with a thyroid gland that does not function properly may have few signs and symptoms at first. When newborns are diagnosed with hypothyroidism, they may experience the following complications:

  • Yellowing of the skin and eye whites (jaundice). In most cases, this occurs when a baby's liver is unable to metabolise bilirubin, a substance that normally forms when the body recycles old or damaged red blood cells.
  • A protruding tongue.
  • Breathing is difficult.
  • Crying until you're hoarse.
  • A hernia of the umbilicus.

As the disease progresses, infants may struggle to feed and may fail to grow and develop normally. They could also have:

  • Constipation
  • Muscle tone is poor
  • Excessive sleepliness

Children and adolescents with hypothyroidism

Children and teenagers who develop hypothyroidism have the same signs and symptoms as adults, but they may also have:

  • Inadequate growth, resulting in short stature
  • Delayed permanent tooth development
  • Delayed puberty
  • Inadequate mental development

Diagnosis of Thyroid :

Thyroid disease can be difficult to diagnose at times because the symptoms are similar to those of other conditions. When pregnant or ageing, you may experience symptoms similar to those associated with thyroid disease. Fortunately, there are tests that can help determine whether your symptoms are the result of a thyroid problem. When it comes to thyroid gland problems, medical history, specialised tests, and a thorough physical examination all play a role in both diagnosis and treatment. As a result, the doctors at Aakash Healthcare of Endocrinology and Diabetes begin by taking a history of the patient, which is then followed by a physical examination and various diagnostic tests. Among the latter are:

  • Blood tests are performed - T3,T4, Thyroid Simulating Hormone(TSH), anti TPO, lipid profile, CBC, and lipid profile may be needed to diagnose the problem
  • Imaging examinations – Ultrasound(USG) OF Thyroid

Treatment for thyroid disease:

The goal of your healthcare provider is to restore your thyroid hormone levels to normal. This can be accomplished in a variety of ways, and the specific treatment will be determined by the underlying cause of your thyroid condition.

If you have high levels of thyroid hormones (hyperthyroidism), you may be able to receive the following treatment:

  • Radioactive iodine: This treatment damages thyroid cells, preventing them from producing high levels of thyroid hormones.
  • Medications: In hypothyroidism, medications help compensate for the lack of thyroid hormone. The thyroid hormone is administered in the form of a pill. Medicines can reduce the production of excess thyroid hormone in cases of hyperthyroidism. Antithyroid drugs and beta-blockers are the two main types of medications used to treat hyperthyroidism.
  • Surgery - Your healthcare provider may surgically remove your thyroid as a more permanent treatment option (thyroidectomy). This will stop it from producing hormones. You will, however, need to take thyroid replacement hormones for the rest of your life.

Endocrinology and Diabetes at Aakash Healthcare in Dwarka, Delhi, has one of the best endocrinologists in the city and is regarded as one of the best centers/hospitals for thyroid and hormone-related diseases. The department is led by a capable team of highly trained endocrinologists, oncologists, surgeons, thyroid specialists, and other staff who collaborate to offer patients best-in-class treatment options. The team has treated a variety of thyroid, pituitary, and metabolic conditions, including obesity, PCOS, osteoporosis, and hormonal disorders.

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