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Liver Anatomy:

The liver is a digestive organ found only in vertebrates that detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals required for digestion and growth. It is a cone shaped dark reddish-brown organ situated in the upper right quadrant of the abdominal cavity, beneath the diaphragm and on top of the stomach, right kidney, and intestines.

Liver damage causes:
Liver damage can occur as a result of illness, Obesity, infection, or the consumption of alcohol. When your liver is injured, whether from disease, excessive alcohol consumption, or another cause, it attempts to repair itself. Scar tissue forms as a result of the process. Cirrhosis causes scar tissue to form, making it difficult for the liver to function. Liver Cirrhosis is a potentially fatal disease.

The following are some of the most common causes of liver damage and cirrhosis:

Hepatitis B & C - It is a blood-borne virus that can cause severe liver damage in some people
Alcoholic Cirrhosis – Liver lesions caused by excessive alcohol consumption
Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC)- It is a poorly understood condition that causes progressive liver damage
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is a condition in which fat accumulates in the liver, causing inflammation or damage to the liver cells.
Hemochromatosis, which causes excessive iron buildup in the liver, and Wilson's disease, which causes excessive copper buildup in the liver, are two examples of genetic diseases affecting the liver.
Primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and biliary atresia are all diseases that affect the bile ducts (the tubes that carry bile away from the liver). Biliary atresia is the most prevalent reason for a liver transplant in youngsters.
When cirrhosis progresses to a certain stage, the liver gradually loses all of its function. This condition is known as liver failure or end-stage liver disease.

A person with liver failure has no other option for long-term survival than a liver transplant.

What is a Liver Transplant?
Liver transplant is a surgery in which a diseased or damaged liver is removed from the body and replaced with a healthy liver. It is advised when the liver has been damaged to the point where it cannot perform its normal functions and is likely to fail.

Although liver transplant is common, it is major surgery. The most serious risk is that the body may reject the new organ. To prevent this from happening, you will need to take immune suppressant medication for the rest of your life.

The department of Liver Transplantation at Aakash Healthcare Super Speciality at Aakash, New Delhi has all state of the art technology, capable of working round the clock. The department deals with the entire spectrum of diseases of the liver, biliary tract and pancreas requiring surgical interventions. We have the team of best Liver Transplant surgeons in Delhi and that is why we are considered one of the best hospitals for Liver Transplant in Delhi NCR.

The members of the team have received training at some of the world's most prestigious institutions and have extensive experience managing patients with liver disease and conducting liver transplants in India. Our Liver transplantation doctor has pioneered liver transplantation in India and has been involved in subsequent innovations in living donor liver transplantation such as minimally invasive donor hepatectomy, ABOI, Domino, and dual liver transplant. The team has taken part in over 1500 liver transplants, including living donor, deceased donor, paediatric, and combined liver and kidney transplants.

There are three types of Liver Transplant:

Deceased Organ Donation - Deceased Organ Donation is a liver transplant taken from a recently deceased person (Brain dead).
Living Donor Liver Transplant - It is the removal of a portion of a living donor's liver because the liver can regenerate itself, both the transplanted portion and the remaining portion of the donor's liver can regenerate into a normal-sized liver.
Split Donation Liver Transplant - The liver of a recently deceased person (brain dead donor) is divided into two pieces, one larger and one smaller; each piece is transplanted into a separate individual, where it grows back to normal size.
How is Liver Transplant Surgery done?
For deceased donor liver transplant the staff at the liver transplant Centre will contact you as soon as a suitable liver becomes available. It must be the correct size and match your blood group.

Because the call could come at any time of day or night, you should have a mobile number always active. You may be given transportation to the transplant center if necessary. You should not eat or drink anything from the time transplant center contacts you.

The live donor liver transplant is a planned procedure. The donor is extensively evaluated in the preoperative period.

Once you arrive at the hospital, chest X-ray and ECG will be done to assess your heart and lung function. In preparation for the transplant, you will be given a general anesthesia

To access your liver, the transplant surgeon makes a long incision across your abdomen. The size and location of your incision are determined by your surgeon's approach and your anatomy.

The surgeon removes the bad liver and replaces it with a donor liver. The surgeon will then attach your blood vessels and bile ducts to the donor liver. Depending on your situation, surgery can last up to 12 hours. After your new liver is in place, the surgeon will close the surgical incision with stitches and staples. You are then transferred to the intensive care unit to begin your recovery

Orthotopic transplant- An orthotopic transplant is the most common type of liver transplant, in which the entire liver is taken from a recently deceased donor.
Your liver will be removed through an incision in your abdomen by the surgeon. Following that, the donor liver will be placed in your body and attached to your blood vessels and bile ducts (the small tubes that carry bile out of the liver). Following the transplantation of the donor liver, the incision will be closed with a dissolving suture. Drainage tubes will be attached to drain excess fluid, and these tubes will typically remain attached for several days after surgery.

After the transplant, you will be admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for recovery.

Living donor transplant- The donor will have an operation to remove the left or right lobe of the liver during a living donor Surgery. Adults are usually advised to have a liver transplant from the right lobe. A transplant of the left lobe (of the liver) is recommended for children. This is due to the fact that the right lobe is larger and better suited for adults, whereas the left lobe is smaller and better suited for children.
Following the donor operation, your liver will be removed and a portion of the donor's liver will be transplanted there. Your blood vessels and bile ducts will then be linked to the liver section.

The transplanted part (lobe) will regenerate quickly after the transplant. Most living donor transplants result in the new part growing to 85 percent the size of the original liver within a week.

Split Donation - Split donation is possible if a donor’s liver from a recently deceased person is available and both you and a child are suitable candidates for donation.
The donated liver will be divided into two parts: left and right. Typically, a large right part and a small left part will be implanted in the baby.

Multiple liver transplant units have successfully performed split donation transplants on two adults; though transplant success in an adult receiving a small left lobe is much lower than average.

What are the complications of a Liver Transplant?
Rejection, an increased risk of infection, graft failure, biliary complication, and an increased risk of developing certain conditions, such as diabetes, are all potential complications of a liver transplant.

Liver rejection - Rejection is a natural reaction of the body to a foreign object. When a person's body receives a new liver, the body views the transplanted organ as a threat and strives to destroy it. The immune system produces antibodies in an attempt to kill the new organ, oblivious to the fact that the transplanted liver is beneficial. Medication must be given to deceive the immune system into accepting the transplant and not rejecting it as a foreign item in order for the organ to live successfully in a new body. The signs and symptoms of Liver rejection include high grade fever (more than 100° F), headache, jaundice, fatigue, Itching, Dark urine, vomiting, and diarrhea.
Infection - Immunosuppressive medications make you more susceptible to fungal infection, cytomegalovirus

Diet and Nutrition post-Liver Transplant:
You may need to change your diet after your liver transplant to maintain your liver healthy and operating properly while also avoiding excessive weight gain. Infections, high blood pressure, and other disorders can be avoided by maintaining a healthy weight. Your dietician and other members of your treatment team will collaborate with you to develop a healthy eating plan that matches your needs and fits into your lifestyle.

Your nutritionist will give you a variety of nutritious food selections and ideas to incorporate into your meal plan. Dietician’s diet recommendation post Liver Transplant may include the following:-

Eating a minimum of five servings of fruits and vegetables each day.
Eating a diet rich in lean meats, chicken, and fish
Including whole-grain breads, cereals, and other grains in your diet
Getting adequate fibre in your diet on a regular basis
Calcium can be obtained by drinking low-fat milk or eating other low-fat dairy products.
Following a low-salt, low-fat diet
Do not consume alcohol
Staying hydrated by drinking enough water and other fluids throughout the day
Grapefruit and grapefruit juice should be avoided due to their effect on immunosuppressive drugs (calcineurin inhibitors)
If you have any query related to Liver Specialist in Delhi, or best liver surgeon in Delhi, or any query about Liver transplant, book an appointment with us today and get your doubt cleared by our experts.


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