Abnormal tumor growths that develop within or on the uterus are known as fibroids. Even though fibroids are non-cancerous or benign; they can still swell up and grow large leading to intense abdominal pain or heavier than usual menstruation and in some cases, they cause no pain or difficulty at all. The reasons or causes for developing fibroids are yet unknown though it seems they develop during the time women can have children or childbearing years. Myomas, leiomyomas, uterine myomas, and fibromas are some other names for fibroids. Fibroids are fairly common and around one million cases are reported in India alone some statistics reveal that about eighty percent of all women have fibroids by the time they turn fifty, most of them never even realize they have fibroids as the symptoms are nonexistent.
As stated earlier the exact causes related to the development of fibroids are yet unknown but experts have wagered some plausible causes that might influence the possibility of fibroid growth.
Contraceptives and Birth Control when used regularly can also lead to fibroid complications.
The symptoms will be relative to the location, size, positioning, and number of fibroids that develop. For example, submucosal fibroids are the most painful and create complications concerning conceiving children.
In case the fibroid is small or occurs only during menstruation; there might be no symptoms whatsoever. The levels of estrogen and progesterone fluctuating up and down during and after a period can cause shrinkage of the fibroids.
Note the symptoms mentioned above and if you experienced or continue to experience any of them, see your gynaecologist for a proper diagnosis aka a pelvic examination, which assesses the size, condition, and shape of the pelvis.
Ultrasound- high-frequency sound waves are deployed to render images of the uterus on a screen. This will display the internal state and structure of the uterus, revealing any fibroids, if present.
Transvaginal Ultrasound- involves inserting an ultrasound “wand” into the vagina and provides a closer clearer look into the uterus as the vagina is closer to it during such a procedure.
Pelvic MRI- an in-depth imaging test that renders a clear picture of the uterus, ovaries, and overall pelvic region.
There is a range of options, from home remedies to surgery.
Home remedies - acupuncture, yoga, a healthy diet, heat applied for cramping (except during heavy bleeding), ideal weight, avoidance of meat and high-calorie food, green leafy vegetables, and seafood diets, and stress redressal are some remedies.
Hormone control medication to shrink fibroids, Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists, such as leuprolide (Lupron) will decrease estrogen and progesterone levels.
Ganirelix acetate and cetrorelix acetate (Cetrotide), also help to shrink fibroids. They work by stopping your body from producing follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH)
Surgery is the final option and a gynaecologist must be consulted if no improvements are made after a course of medication and lifestyle improvements.
Hormones in form of oral contraceptives or cyclic progestins reduce the amount of bleeding. LNG-IUS may also be an option for increasing menstrual flow. GnRH agonists are used to decreasing the size of fibroids before surgery, ulipristal acetate causes amenorrhea thereby reducing blood loss.
Still represents the main strategy for fibroid management. It may be selective removal of fibroids i.e. Myomectomy, which can be removed for sub mucus fibroids. Laparoscopic Myomectomy or Open Myomectomy Hysterectomy is the final option for big monies or with a rapid increase in size or continuous abnormal bleeding despite hormonal treatment.
Also, Read: Tips to maintain good menstrual hygiene